Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

One of the primary goals of #TheSDGVizProject has been to highlight inequalities around the globe. Though nearly every goal to this point has provided opportunities to highlight these inequalities, it is the sole focus of Goal 10. Inequality exists in countless forms. Gender, Education, Social Protections and Safety Nets, Food Security…the list goes on. And though these inequities are most prominent when comparing richer and poorer nations, these are universal issues that exist in every region, every country, and every city. Below are some statistics related to inequality from the United Nations:

  • Out of the 90 countries with comparable data between 2012 and 2017;
    • 73 saw income growth for the bottom 40%
    • 45 saw income growth for the bottom 40% at a rate higher than the national average
    • the bottom 40% for all countries received less than 25% of the total income, while the top 10% received at least 20% of the total income
  • In the 31 countries where data was available from 2014-2019, at least 1 in 5 people reported being discriminated against based on grounds that are prohibited by international human rights laws
  • Of the 111 countries with available data in 2019, 54% reported having policies and measures in place to facilitate the “orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people”
  • The GINI Index, which measures income inequality within a country, fell (improved) in 38 out of 84 countries
  • Resource flows for development in developing nations shrank from $420B in 2017 to $271B in 2018 and is expected to shrink more due to COVID-19
  • In developing nations, children in the poorest 20% of the population are up to 3X more likely to die before their 5th birthday, compared to the richest 20%
  • Though there have been significant improvements in maternal mortality rates, women in rural areas are still up to 3X more likely to die during childbirth than women living in urban centers
  • Of the 1 Billion people living with disabilities, roughly 80% live in developing nations
  • For more statistics related to Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure, please see the Goal 10 Progress site here

Goal 10 Targets:

  • 10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
  • 10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
  • 10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
  • 10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
  • 10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
  • 10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
  • 10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
  • 10.A Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
  • 10.B Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
  • 10.C By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

This Month’s Challenge:

In November 2020, we are sharing more datasets thanks to our friends at the Centre for Humanitarian Data.  Links to a number of datasets from the Humanitarian Data Exchange related to Inequality can be found on our data.world site here.  And as always, we are sharing Goal related data from the U.N.’s Sustainable Development Goal Database, with regional data on all of the targets listed above.

If you would like participate, you can use data from any source, but the overall goal is to focus your analysis on some of the Inequality related topics mentioned in the Targets section above.  If you come across other interesting datasets, please let us know so we can add them to our data.world project.  The deadline for submission will be November 30, 2020. Make sure to tag us in your submission, add the #TheSDGVizProject hashtag, and add your submission to #TheSDGVizProject tracker.

As we mentioned on our Home page, building a viz is not the only way to participate.  Our main goal is to spread awareness, so if you see a viz with #TheSDGVizProject, please share it.  And keep an eye out for a post at the end of the month with ways that you can contribute to this month’s goal.


Global SDG Indicators Database

Goal 10 Progress

Goal 10: Reduced Inequality